Saturday, 2 February 2013

Budgerigar

order : Psittaciformes      Genus & Species : Psittacidae     Family : Melopsittacus undulatus

Although it’s best known as a solitary cage bird, the budgerigar is a gregarious parrot that joins others to form great wheeling flocks containing thousands of birds. The budgerigar, with its compact, streamlined body and long, tapering wings, is a fast flier that travels long distances in search of food. They found across Australia’s dry interior; absent only from the extreme southwest, the far north, the coastal strip east of the Great Dividing Range and Tasmania. 

Habitat : The budgerigar is found mainly in the sparsely populated semiwilderness of Australia’s interior, the Outback, which covers 2 million sq. miles of land to the west of the Great Dividing Range. A sociable bird, it flies in flocks over dry, open grassland and farmland, roosting among scattered acacia trees and eucalyptus scrub. The budgerigar avoids the mountains and forests of the east, but flocks have been seen flying southeast toward Melbourne and into lush southwestern parts of western Australia. Rarely venturing far from water, the bird is seldom found in areas prone to drought. Unlike many of Australia’s native birds, it has benefited from the expansion of farming land.The permanent supplies of water in tanks built by sheep farmers have enabled the budgerigar to inhabit areas where it was formerly absent. 
Food & Feeding : Grass seeds and herbs form the bulk of the budgerigar’s diet. Seeds are taken directly from the plant or collected from the ground. Ripened seeds of porcupine grass, Mitchell grass, spinifex and saltbush are favored. The budgerigar removes the outer seed casing, then swallows the inner part whole. Feeding usually takes place in the morning and evening, while the hottest part of the day is spent resting and preening in the trees. In the wild, the budgerigar drinks every day. But drinking in the open can be dangerous; a bird with its head down is vulnerable to attack by predators. Consequently, the budgerigar often gathers in great numbers for safety at waterholes. Indeed, flocks have been known to be so large that successive waves of birds trying to get to the water land on top of those already drinking and drown them. 
Behavior : The budgerigar is a nomad, moving around in flocks, the size of which vary with food availability and water supplies. Smaller flocks, sometimes with as few as half a dozen birds, occur near the fringes of the continent; the largest flocks are seen in central Australia, especially after heavy rains. Flying with rapid wingbeats, large budgerigar flocks wheel and twist with precision. Flocking helps the budgerigar find food by increasing the number of eyes looking for feeding areas.The swirling flock on the move also confuses predators by making it difficult for them to target one bird. 
Breeding : The budgerigar breeds all year if sufficient rainfall stimulates a good crop of food. In the south, breeding peaks between August and January; in the north, from June to September. The budgerigar breeds in large colonies, pairing for long periods, possibly for life. Nests are made in tree holes, stumps, posts or even logs. The white, rounded eggs (usually four to six, occasionally eight) are laid on wood dust at the bottom of the hole. After the female incubates the eggs for 18 days, young hatch and are cared for by both parents for five weeks.Young are first fed on “budgie milk,” a regurgitated food high in protein similar to a mammal’s milk. The young budgerigar is a duller color than its parents and has dark-brown eyes. Within three or four months, it acquires adult plumage and both sexes are sexually mature and ready to breed. 


Bill : The compact, strong bill is adapted for crushing the hard seeds of wild grasses. 
Color : Wild budgerigars are always bright green, but captive birds are bred in colors ranging from yellow to blue. 
Feet : Each foot has two toes pointing forward and two pointing backward.The feet are covered with tiny scales so the bird can cling to grass stems while feeding. 
Tail : Long tail helps the bird steer and acts like an air brake to slow down quickly when fanned. 


Weight : 1 oz.
Length : 7"
Wingspan : 8"
Sexual Maturity : 3 months
Breeding Season : Varies with location


A female budgerigar often feeds the youngest and smallest of her offspring first, giving the whole brood a chance to survive, rather than just the larger chicks.