Sunday, 3 February 2013

Common Yellow Throat


order : Passeriformes      Genus & Species : Parulidae     Family : Geothlypis trichas

The male common yellowthroat  covered with its black mask while the female remains well hidden, carefully protecting her clutch. The energetic and lively common yellowthroat, with its distinct golden neck feathers, makes a lasting impression throughout its range. They found from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico; winters from California and North Carolina to the Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico and Central America. 

Habitat : The common yellowthroat is perhaps the most widespread American wood warbler. It breeds in all of states in the U.S. and in all of Canada’s provinces. Summer and winter haunts are similar, with the yellowthroat preferring damp, brushy habitats, including marshes, cattail meadows, brambles and bogs. In the drier regions of the western U.S., the bird occurs mainly in marshy stream and pond margins and flooded thickets. They rarely seen in gardens , the main requirement of the common yellowthroat’s home is thick cover nearby. 
Food & Feeding : Hunting target for food is  everything from dragonflies, grasshoppers, moths and leafhoppers, to damselflies, mayflies and butterflies. The bird also gleans spiders, beetles, grubs, cankerworms and caterpillars from leaves and grasses. The yellowthroat carefully works its way through the dense tangles of its preferred habitat, often perching and climbing on the tall vertical stalks of nearby reeds or rushes while searching for a wide variety of food. 
Behavior : The male always with a masked bandit, moving with secrecy through the dense vegetation of its home.To avoid threats, both sexes skulk low in the dense underbrush. But when an intruder enters their territory, the wary birds utter their startling alarm note, a loud sip.  From March to May, these birds arrive in the northernmost range, returning south from mid-August to late October. Because the common yellowthroats are night migrants, many of the birds collide with tall structures, including power stations and lighthouses, as they fly to and from their summer homes.
Breeding : Males arrive at their northern breeding grounds in season of march . Places be ready before females arrive, and the males’ songs resound across the U.S. and Canada, and advertising their presence to the coming females. The nest is build from grasses, leaves and bark  and lined with fine grasses and hairs. They form nest near the ground, at the base of a bush or in a clump of weeds. The female lays 3–5 white eggs with dark specks, lines or blotches, and she incubates them alone for about 12 days. Both parents feed insects to nestlings, and they are ready to fly in 10 days. due to near ground nesting younger often prey to snakes and small mammals. 

Bill : The bill is slender and sharp, ideal for snatching small insects. 
Mask : The male’s broad, black mask is retained all year, not just during the breeding season; juvenile males have a trace of the mask by their first winter. 
Feet & Legs : The long, slender toes are perfect for perching. On the ground, the yellowthroat uses its slender legs to hop, rather than walk. 
Tail : When perched, the yellowthroat frequently cocks and twitches its rounded tail for balance. 
Plumage : The well-camouflaged female lacks the male’s distinguishing black mask. She is olive green above like the male, but her chin, throat and breast are a paler yellow. 

Weight : 0.25–0.5 oz.
Length : 4.5-5.5"
Sexual Maturity : 1 year
Breeding Season : April–July 

The yellowthroat's genus name comes from the Greek words, ge, meaning earth, and thlypis, a kind of finch — hence the genus name means, quite literally, a ground bird.